Archive for the 'trees | evergreen' Category

Magnolia grandiflora | Southern Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora.

bloom by Greg Miles.                                      tree by Clemson HGIC Photos

DESCRIPTION | native, softly pyramidal, evergreen tree

SIZE | 30′ – 50′ tall

FLOWER | 5″ with large cupped petals, white or creamy white, lemon or vanilla fragrance, blooms in summer

NOTES | 3″, furry seed pods with beautiful bright orange red berries in fall.  nice but smaller cultivars: ‘Teddy Bear’, ‘Alta’

Cryptomeria japonica ‘Yoshino’ | Japanese Cedar

DESCRIPTION | large evergreen conifer tree

SIZE | 30′ – 40′ tall

FLOWER | none

NOTES | useful for screening, good alternative to Leland Cypress

Sustainable Woodland Path | dogwood*design project

IMG_9985.JPG, originally uploaded by dogwood*designer.

DESIGNER
Adele Medina O’Dowd, principal, dogwood*design, llc
contact me | adele@willowlandscapedesign.net or 202.255.0728
references available upon request

before
GARDEN CHARACTER

This little stretch of earth was once lined in dying bamboo, but has now been rejuvenated and reclaimed as a lovely passageway between Chevy Chase West’ Hunt Avenue and Drummond Avenue. The big problem here was water and drainage since possibly a couple hundred commuters and school children take this route through the neighborhood each day. The bottom of the of the pass was always flooding in heavy rain since it had a very low spot.

Once the bamboo was removed and tilled out of the ground, a great spot as left for a garden. But since this land is community property and therefore no on in particular is responsible for it’s upkeep except willing neighbors, dogwood*design was charged with designing a plan that would be sustainable and a pleasure to see each day and with seasonal interest.

PLANTS
Planted here are purple Beautyberries, native Virginia Sweetspire ‘Henry’s Garnet’ and Spicebush, as well as tall growing evergreens Aucuba japonica and Leatherleaf viburnum. Two trees adorn the spot now, a light green needled evergreen Limber Pine and a very showy deciduous Chinese Fringetree with it’s exfoliating bark and lacy white spring plums.

Hope you have a chance to pass by and enjoy this sustainable community bright spot.

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CCW Path Plan.jpg

Find Your Roots | Technology

FIND YOUR ROOTS
When planting near trees, it’s great if you know where the tree roots are so you can avoid doing damage to them. Many people don’t realize that the first top 6 inches of soil is where the vast majority of all tree roots are and that they generally spread out way beyond the canopy. This artist’s illustration of a real tree and it’s roots from the Morton Arboretum (in Chicago), shows the truth of the matter very plainly. An arborist from Care of Trees, shared this drawing with me. They specialize in you guessed it …

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SOIL COMPACTION
Damaging soil compaction often happens when people renovate their homes. It can’t be helped when big digging and multi-ton equipment is envolved. A “hardpan” forms at or under the surface and people see the poor water filtration symptomatically. The worst compaction happens when soil is wet and then basically squished beyond belief, expunging air from between soil particles, leaving no room for nuetrients, air and water to circulate. Everything a tree needs, except sunlight, comes from underground, so you can see why soil compaction stresses a tree. For a more in depth, but fairly understandable explanation of the topic, read University of Georgia article, Soil Compaction & Trees, Causes, Symptoms & Effects by Dr. Kim Coder.
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this photo was originally uploaded by canopy photo. A professional arborist used an air spade to check this Live Oak’s roots for health and vitality.

ROOT TECHNOLOGY
People in this bussiness can use great technology to help you save and keep your mature trees even with major home or landscape renovation. They can help prevent soil compaction by using “protection and airation mats”, that distribute the weight of heavy equiment or top soil or even a concrete path over the top of roots, while allowing proper air and water flow; or “de-compact” soils using a tool called an “air spade” which blasts air into the soil at mach 2, lifting compacted soil. After that you can renovate the soil with appropriate organic material by “radial or vertical mulching”. I think this is fantastic.  This artical from GROUNDS MAINTENANCE by E. Thomas Smiley, explains these treatments more fully.

Ilex x koehneana | Koehne Holly

image Ilex x koehneana

Ilex x koehneana | Koehne Holly

STRENGTHS
Evergreen, consistant, pyramidal. A nice specimen seen at US Arboretum. Has the admirable quality of folliage growing all the way into the tree. Would be useful and reliable for larger landscapes but too large for average residential setting.
MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching.  Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary.  Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.

CARE
Occassionally gets winter burn, simply prune out. Difficult to grow in colder suburbs of DC. Needs protection.
NOTES
Males called Ajax, Females called Agena. Dioecious – needs male nearby for females to berry. id by darkest green and very large leaves, leaf growth all the way in. (I. aquifolium x I. latifolia)

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
available at Merrifield
‘Jade’ is male, Ajax
‘Ruby’ is female, Agena
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 7 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium to fast
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 20′ to 30′/15′, cultivars can be as small as 4′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. tall, pyramidal, branches horizontal
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 2″ to 3″ leaves curve down, folliage grows all the way in
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple,.5 alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | lustrous very dark green, very consistant
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | small white in spring
BERRIES | long drupe of orange to red

NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in moist to dry

U of DE Botonic Gardens / Ilex x koehneana

Royal Horticultural Society / Ilex x koehneana

image Ilex x Koehneana

‘Agena’ above, ‘Ajax’ below

image Ilex x koehneana 'Ajax'

Ilex x ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ | ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ Hybrid Holly

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Ilex x ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ | ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ Hybrid Holly
STRENGTHS
Evergreen, vigorous grower and popular. ‘Nellie R. Stevens’ is too large for average residential setting, but useful and reliable for larger landscapes. Still, I prefer the less pricey and smaller more textured leaf look of alternative Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri’.
MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching. Also, the shinier the leaf, the more fake they look to me. Therefore I’m not a fan of Ilex cornuta. Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary. Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.
CARE
Occassionally gets winter burn, simply prune out.
NOTES
This plant is only a female. Can be pollinated by male I. cornuta. id by leaf curving down as if around a curler, chartruese bark, leaf growth all the way in. Leaves have prominant but few spikes. (I. cornuta x I. aquifolium).
RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
available at Merrifield
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 7 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium to fast
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 15′ to 20′/8′ to 15′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. tall, always pyramidal, branches horizontal
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 2″-3″ lustrous dark green, 5 to 6 spikes, soft and flexible, long and more oval shaped than anything else (not as “cornuta” or crown shaped)
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | lustrous dark green, very consistant
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | small white in spring
BERRIES | heavy fruiting
BARK | new growth is chartruese

NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in moist to dry

Monrovia / Ilex x Nellie R. Stevens
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Ilex x ‘Dr. Kassab’ | ‘Dr. Kassab’ Hybrid Holly

image Ilex x 'Dr. Kassab'
Ilex x ‘Dr. Kassab’ | ‘Dr. Kassab’ Hybrid Holly

STRENGTHS
Evergreen, consistant. A nice specimen seen at US Arboretum. Has the admirable quality of folliage growing all the way into the tree. Would be useful and reliable for larger landscapes but too large for average residential setting.
MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching.  Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary.  Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.

CARE
Occassionally gets winter burn, simply prune out.
NOTES
This plant is only a female. Dioecious – needs male nearby for females to berry. id by leaf curving down as if around a curler, chartruese bark, leaf growth all the way in. Prominant but few spikes. (I. cornuta x I. pernyi)

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
available at Merrifield
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 7 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium to fast
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 15′ to 20′/8′ to 15′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. tall, pyramidal, branches horizontal
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 1.5″-3″ leaves curve down, folliage grows all the way in
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | lustrous dark green, very consistant
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | small white in spring
BERRIES | light fruiting
BARK | new growth is chartruese

NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in moist to dry

image Ilex x 'Dr. Kassab' curled leaf

Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri’ | Foster’s Hybrid Hollies

image Ilex x attenuata 'Sunny Foster'

‘Sunny Foster’ above

Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri’ | Foster’s Hybrid Hollies

STRENGTHS
Evergreen native to MD, conical force to be reconned with. Their leaves have very long spikes, are trim and narrow mirroring general plant shape. I would choose them over Ilex cornuta since they aren’t as shiny or fake looking. They have value as durable possibility for street tree or impenetrable, trouble free hedge. Foster’s Hollies sopecies often called Topel Holly.

MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching. Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary. Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.

CARE
Good attention to pruning is needed to keep a nursery produced plant dense and not spindly. Watch out for spittlebugs. Occassionally gets winter burn, simply prune out.
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NOTES
Dioecious – needs male nearby for females to berry. Usually pollinated by Ilex opaca. id by plant shape and “bird foot” shaped leaf. Young leaves have more spikes, older may have only one.

image Ilex x attenuata 'Foster #2'

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Foster #2’ available, the best one to use, almost columnar, trim and neat
‘Foster #3′ available but never use
‘Sunny Foster’ new folliage is yellow and fading to green, nice color I would consider
‘Savannah’ popular in the south, loosley pyramidal, light green foliage
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 6 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium to fast
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 20′-30′/8′ to 15′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. tall, conical to columnar, fairly dense
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 1.5″-3″ varries greatly in serration.
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | medium green, semi-glossy
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | small yellow to white in spring
BERRIES | heavy fruiting, arrives early stays late
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NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in moist to dry
Native MD to FL and west to TX
MOBOT / Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri’

VA Tech Dendrology / Ilex x attenuata

image Ilex x attenuata 'Foster #2'

Ilex vomitoria | Yaupon Holly

image Ilex vomitoria 'Yawkeyi'

above ‘Yawkeyi’ @ US Arborretum

Ilex vomitoria | Yaupon Holly

STRENGTHS
Evergreen and lovely with dainty small leaves with softly arching branches. Native to MD, multitude of uses in natural or formal gardens. I am a new and enthusuastic fan of this holly. Can be used as substitute for Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata, evergreen with black berries) because more adaptable and disease resistant. Tremendous number of cultivars available, use for informal screens and hedges, takes pruning well, looks wonderful in mass and foundations and even topiary and espaliers. The epithet “vomitoria” is indicative of the fact that eating the berries will make you sick. Native Americans made tea from berries, also containing high caffeine content that made them vomit in order to “cleans” impurities from body and soul. Ok.

CARE
No serious problems, prune selectively to keep natural informal shape.

NOTES
Dioecious – needs male nearby for females to berry. Dirr says “perhaps the most adaptable small leaved holly for southern gardens”.

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Yawkeyi’ heavy fruiting yellow berries 15′ tall

image Ilex vomitoria Yawkeyi reddish new stems image Ilex vomitoria 'Stokes Dwarf' new reddish growth
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 7 – 10 | sun to shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium to fast, responds well to high fertility
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 15′ to 20′/ narrower spread
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Loose, upright, rounded; can sucker and form thickets
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. .5″-1.5″/.25″ to .75″ oval,tapered at base, blunt at apex
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | dark green, no blackish glands evident on underside
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
STEMS | new growth is purplish red
FLOWERS | small white in spring
BERRIES | translucent, bright red, orange or yellow
NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in really wet to very dry, tollerant of salt spray
Native MD, VA to FL and west to TX

image Ilex vomitoria 'Stokes Dwarf'

image Ilex vomitoria 'Stokes Dwarf'

Ilex opaca | American Holly

image Ilex opaca matte leavesIlex opaca | American Holly

STRENGTHS
Native to MD, a woodland naturalizer. If you see a holly in the wild, it’s likely this one. Sturdy and easy, I like it much better than the standard Chinese Holly. Has a nice pendulous banches. id an I. opaca by its flat matte green leaves with 1 to 3 spikes. Adds winter interest with large red berries that ripen in fall and persist to April. Requires plenty of space. Songbirds, especially Robins are almost fanatical.

image Ilex opaca image Ilex opaca berries

CARE
Winter burn can occur. They have quite a few pests but they’re so tough there’s usually no problem.
NOTES
Dioecious – needs male nearby for females to berry. Take care when spiney leaves drop on the ground.


RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Warren’s Red’ available, heavy fruiting 15′ tall
‘Xanthocarpa’ has gorgeous yellow berries 40′ – 50′/15′ – 40′

ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 5 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 20′-30′/7′ to 15′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Loose, rounded; many horizontal and ascending branches, pendulous

image Ilex opaca tree
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 1.5″-3″ obovate, impressed veins, obtusely serrated, thin, light
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Deciduous | dark green, turning bright yellow in fall
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | small white in spring
BERRIES | beautiful bright orange red
NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL does well in moist to dry and slightly alkaline
Native MD to FL and west to TX

Duke / Ilex opaca

BBC Gardening / Ilex opaca

Dave’s Garden / Ilex opaca

Cheasepeake Bay / American Holly

image Ilex opaca 'Xanthocarpa' yellow berries

Ilex opaca, originally uploaded by 3 John 1:4.

Ilex opaca, originally uploaded by intheburg.

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