Archive for the 'trees | evergreen' Category

Cryptomeria japonica | Cryptomeria

image Cryptomeria japonica

Cryptomeria japonica | Cryptomeria

STRENGTHS
Evergreen. Fantastical needles and branchlets that resemble exploding spiral fireworks. Green fills the entire body of the tree. Any size and shape available, many with bright chartreuse colors. One of the rare evergreens to grow happily in shade. Sacred in Japanese gardens appearing at many shrines.

CARE
Little or no maintenance required, pollution sensitive. Keep soil moist, suffers in dry periods, likes humidity.

PRUNING
The compact habit can necessitate pruning of new growth, entangled branches and overlapping shoots. This provides space for light and air to reach the desired foliage, and reduces the liklihood of fungus and insect problems. Pinch back new growth, as clipping with scissors results in browning tips. The plant tends to thicken at intersections between trunk and branches, so unwanted upper branches should be removed promptly to avoid loss of trunk taper. The Cryptomeria is most often styled as a formal upright, or forest planting. Cryptomeria should be pruned mid-spring through the end of summer. Do not work on Cryptomeria during winter.
NOTES
Some people have pollen allergies to these.

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Yoshino’ popular and available blue green form that bronzes in cold weather, handsome 40’ tall

Kim Tripp’s top 10: ‘Ben Franklin’ 40’, ‘Black Dragon’ compact, ‘Elegans’ feathery bush, ‘Elegans Aurea’, ‘Elegans Nana’, ‘Globosa Nana’ neat 3’, ‘Grasilis’, ‘Lobbii’ columnar/pyramidal, ‘Sekkan-sugi’ yellow-gr 20’, ‘Yellow Twig’

ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 5 – 8 | prefers full sun but takes some shade
GROWTH RATE ….. medium
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 50’ to 60’ / 20’ to 30’
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Soft pyramidal, erect, wide spreading branches with many excited branchlets, graceful
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. Needles persisting 4 – 5 years, short awl shaped, rubbary
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. Short spiraling, slightly twisting
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | light to bluish green

FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
BARK | beautiful reddish brown peeling off in long strips
CONES | terminal, globular, ½”, drk brown

NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL Prefers fertile well-drained
Eastern North America, down to GA
It is also often used in sakei.

www.conifers.org/Criptomeria japonica

wikipedia/Criptomeria japonica

japanese cedar

IMG_5738.JPG

light green folliage above compliments the Arborvitae and Ilex opaca in this planting, nice!

IMG_6474.JPG

above planted in a woodland style garden

IMG_5739.JPG

Ilex aquifolium | English Holly

image English Holly leaves

Ilex aquifolium | English Holly

STRENGTHS
Evergreen and makes a good hedge, especially as a barrier. Has wavey and extremely spikey, leaves unique and quite destinct form other hollies. The spikes sometimes occur in the middle of the blade. Commonly planted on British seasides and grown as an understory tree or even topiary. id I. aquifolia by it’s chartreuse stems (growing for 2 years) and overly spikey leaves.

MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching. Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary. Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.

CARE
Won’t tollerate poor drainage. The root system resents being disturbed, so do not cultivate the soil around them. Hollies sometimes drop their old leaves due to transplant shock, but new foliage will soon emerge. Be careful not to overwater holly that has lost its leaves. Keep the soil moist during the summer growing season, but allow it to dry somewhat in early fall to allow the season’s growth to mature enough to resist winter damage. Grows naturally a bit more open if not pruned – a nice effect.
NOTES
Doesn’t like extreme heat and humdity. Use only in protected sites. Dioecious – needs male to pollinate females to flower and berry. I. aquifolia is used to as a parent for many hybid cultivars bacause it has so many positive qualities. Plant in spring with plenty of mulch. Rabbits are particularly fond of this species and will quickly remove the bark. When you purchase, need to specify cultivar because the options are limitless.
image English Holly 5' tall
RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Pendula’ can be a good ground cover

‘Feros Argentea’ variegated (see below)
ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 6 – 8 | sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. slow, especially in south and hot weather
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 15’ to 50’ / 15′
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Densley pyramidal, heavily branched
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 1″ to 3″ eliptical to obovate, wavey edges with spines
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | glossy dark green with some variagated cultivars
image English Holly bud

FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
FLOWERS | delicate March-April, white to pale green, not showy
BERRIES | Red, yellow to orange berries
NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL prefers moist well drained, fertile organic and slightly acid, good for urban setting
Native to UK. Very salt tolerant.

image Ilex aquifolia veriagated

image Ilex aquifolia

image Ilex aquifolia spikey leaves

Caring For Conifers

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Caring For Conifers By Kathleen Franklin

Conifers are chiefly evergreen, with needles or scale leaves. They are cone-bearing trees that have evolved over hundreds of millions of years to form glorious forests that shelter an endless variety of wildlife. Conifers include pines, hemlocks, cypress, yews, junipers, fir, cedar, and spruce. Many conifers are slow growing, measured in just a few inches per year. Patience is a necessity, but the rewards are great. They are wonderfully low-maintenance trees as long as they are properly sited and planted. Just about every type of conifer likes an open, sunny location. They require consistent watering, but they aren’t crazy about heavy clay soils. Good ventilation and drainage helps prevent some of the fungal diseases that can plague conifers. Some cold-loving conifers, such as firs, hemlocks and spruces, are starting to struggle a bit in the mid-Atlantic region as we experience increasingly warm winters and even hotter summers. The best time to plant or move a coniferous tree or shrub is late summer or early fall. Conifers usually do not require heavy pruning except for those grown as formal hedges. Light pruning of most evergreens – except for pines and spruce – is best done in late winter/early spring before new growth starts. Pines and spruce should be pruned in mid-summer, after the season’s growth has been completed but before stem tissues harden off. Fertilizing should be done very sparingly; too much fertilizer will cause conifers to produce too much growth too quickly, often resulting in an excess of sap that will attract pests and diseases. Conifers typically have shallow root systems, so they appreciate mulching with composted leaves every autumn. One note about blue spruce: do not use insecticidal soap or horticultural oil on this variety of spruce. The reason it is “blue” is that it has a waxy substance that gives it its bluish-silver cast; soaps and oils will strip this wax off the needles. It’s harmless, but your “blue” spruce will be green for at least a season or two!

Next week: Starting Seeds

(c) 2006 – Kathleen Franklin, All Rights Reserved. Kathleen is a county-certified Master Gardener and a longtime employee of a local garden nursery. To ask a question or to schedule a garden consultation, contact kfranklin@potomacnet.com

Ilex cornuta | Chinese Holly

image Ilex cornuta 'Burfordii'
above – ‘Burfordii’

Ilex cornuta | Chinese Holly
STRENGTHS
Evergreen. Robust leaved Holly. Very adaptable and distinguished shrub. Makes an impenitrable hedge to protect you against unfriendly neighbors. It’s really not a plant I have any affection for but I can see it’s utility. I much prefer the native American Holly Ilex opaca. But, many people love Chinese Hollies. There are at least 100 (probably more) cultivars. ‘Burfordii’ has a nice shape and simpler leaves than some. ‘O. Spring’, with tri-colored leaves is actually quite lovely in the right setting.

MY BAD ATTITUDE ABOUT HOLLIES
My bad attitude about hollies comes from the fact that many outgrow their homes and overwhelm and sometimes obliterate whatever is close by. Often planted as screens in tight spaces, when a much less burly plant would be better. Once overgrown, it is a project to remove them. They can be very nice when treated as small trees, given space and allowed to take on a more natural state. I like hollies pruned up as well to expose the branching. Also, the shinier the leaf, the more fake they look to me.  Therefore I’m not a fan of Ilex cornuta.  Of large leaved hollies, my favorite is the native Ilex opaca. I do not have a bad attitude about small leaved hollies, on the contrary. Ilex crenata or Ilex vomitoria are fabulous.
image Ilex cornuta

CARE
Transfer B&B if root trimmed. Heat and drought tolerant. Prune to shape in early spring just before new growth begins. Needs minimal pruning as a hedge, but may be sheared regularly to neaten hedge.
NOTES
Dioecious, needs male for female to produce berries. Extremely heat and drought tollerant. Occasionally developes a nitrogen deficiency, symptoms are yellow yeaves. Also, sometimes gets scale.
RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Bufordii’ dense rounded/pyramidal up to 20′ high, leaves have only 1 spike
‘Burfordii Nana’ dwarf form, shrub doesn’t berry as heavily
‘O. Spring’ 10′ high mustard yellow, dark and light green leaves

image Ilex cornutaZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE …..
8 – 9 | full sun to part shade
GROWTH RATE ….. slow
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 20’ to 40’ (great variation)
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. rounded, dense, multi-stemed
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. sturdy, sharp spine, rounded or rectangular, have a unique shape – the central spine points down, while the next two point up like horns (hence the name cornuta, which means horned). Many Chinese Hollies lack these horns.
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. simple, alternate
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | Glossy dark green
image Ilex cornuta stems
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
BARK | smooth, gray with size becoming very finely flakey
BERRIES | bright red, showy, appears in fall gives winter interest
FLOWERS | hidden dainty 6 part tiny white flower with yellow center
NATIVE HABITAT
SOIL grows in wet to medium wet. Can tolerate drought, though. Adaptable to light and heavy clay.
Native to east Asia

Floridata | Ilex cornuta ‘Burfordii’
VA Tech Dendrology | Ilex cornuta
Duke | Ilex cornuta


image Ilex cornuta 'O. Spring' leaves
image Ilex cornuta 'O. Spring'

Pinus bungeana | Lacebark Pine

Pinus bungeana cureved needles Pinus bungeana low branches Pinus bungeana bark Pinus bungeana 2' tall Pinus bungeana bark Pinus bungeana needles

Pinus bungeana tree

Pinus bungeana | Lacebark Pine

STRENGTHS
Evergreen. This pine has a place in almost every garden, striking showy bark provides winter interest. Excellent on corners of large buildings or can be used in containers for accent. Grows in red clay.

CARE
This tree can tolerate poor soil conditions but should be planted sufficiently deep. Can be sensitive to over-fertilizing. Should only be moved balled and burlapped as very young tree. No major pests.

NOTES
Many handsome examples appear in US National Arboretum
RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Compacta’ more compact uniform growth. Grows at half the rate of normal species. Has wonderful exfoliating bark.

ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 4 – 8 | full sun
GROWTH RATE ….. Slow, patience is necessary, 1” per year
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 30’ to 50’ / 20’ to 35’

Pinus bungeana barkPLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Pyramidal to rounded, becoming open and broad with age
LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 3 needles remaining 3-4 years, 2”- 4”, white stomatic lines on both sides. Needles sharp stiff and rigid.
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. 3 needles, curving
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | medium to dark green

FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
STEM | grayish
BARK | exfoliating in patches like Plane Tree, green white and brown inside
CONES | terminal or lateral, ovoid 2” – 3” x 2”, light yellowish brown with triangular spine

NATIVE HABITAT
Soil prefers well-drained, may be tolerant of limestone
Native China
Pinus bungeana needles
NC State Plant Fact Sheet

MO Botanical Garden | Pinus bungeana

Wikipedia | Lacebark Pine

Pinus thunbergii | Japanese Black Pine

P. thunbergii - puffy foliage P. thunbergii 'Thunderhead' needles P. thunbergii bonsai P. thunbergii P. thunbergii

Pinus thunbergii @ US Arboretum

Pinus Thunbergii | Japanese Black Pine

STRENGTHS
Evergreen. Great stature and grace alone or in masses even as a screen. Lustrous deep green needles with white, candles (buds) are particularly handsome. Conveys a spirit of ancient wilderness for any style garden.

CARE
Care-free, works very well for salty sites. Transfer B&B if root trimmed. Heat and drought tolerant.

RELATED VARIETIES | CULTIVARS | EXTRA INFO
‘Compacta’ dense large shrub
‘Globoso’ large dense globe
‘Mini Mounds’ 2’ to 4’/ 7’ to 9’
‘Mt Hood Prostrate’ dramatic low sweeping, 6’ to 8’ / 8’ to 12’
‘Thunderhead’ heavy buds, dwarf broad habit
P. thunbergii ‘Oculus Draconis’ has a neat yellow horizontal banding on needles

ZONES HARDINESS | SUN OR SHADE ….. 5 – 8 | full sun
GROWTH RATE ….. Medium
HEIGHT / WIDTH ….. 20’ to 80’ / 20’ to 40’ (great variation)
PLANT SHAPE & BRANCHING ….. Artistically uneven, but generally pyramidal in youth, spreading and pendulous with age

LEAF FORM & SHAPE ….. 2 persisting 3 to 5 years, 2 ½“ to 4 ½“ x 1/12, stiff, fine pointed, stomatic lines on surface
LEAF ARRANGEMENT ….. Needles twisted, appear as puffy ball shapes
LEAF COLOR ….. Evergreen | lustrous dark green

P. thunbergii bark
FEATURES, BUDS, FLOWERS, FRUIT
BARK | blackish gray on old trees, elongated irregular plates
CONES | subterminal, solitary or clustered, 1 ½“ to 3”, shiny light brown
CANDLES | tall showy white buds

NATIVE HABITAT
Soil Quit salt tolerant, best growth in moist, fertile, well drained, will grow in sandy, used for reclaiming dunes.
Native to Japan
image Pinus thunbergii candles

davesgarden / Pinus thunbergii
dendrology @ VA tech / Pinus thunbergii
conifers.org / Pinus thunbergii

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